By Bruce Menzies, N.E. Simons
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Additional info for A Short Course on Foundation Engineering 2nd Edition
The back pressure ensures both saturation of the specimen by dissolving any residual air and also that any pore-pressure reduction owing to incipient dilation of the soil does not give rise to a negative gauge pressure and cause cavitation. However, if these considerations do not arise, then p 0 may be obtained during drainage by connecting the pore-pressure duct to 32 CHAPTER 2 SHEAR STRENGTH Axial load Ram in rotating bushing Top cap Water-filled cell Top platen Rubber O-ring Soil specimen enclosed in rubber membrane Clear acrylic tube Saturated porous disc Base pedestal Cell pressure Saturated pore-water ducts Back pressure Valve open during drainage To pore pressure transducer (a) Captive ball nut Remote transducer Digital control circuit Pressure cylinder Stepper motor and gearbox Piston Pressure outlet ± steps Linear bearing Deaired water Pressure transducer Analogue feedback (b) Fig.
Analysis of failed cuts using the 0 0 method (Lodalen, Norway; Frankton, New Zealand; Eau Brink, England) gave factors of safety of unity thereby apparently con®rming the validity of the method. Amazingly, these early case histories gave fortuitously atypical results and it was eventually realized that the critical long term stability of cuts could not be predicted using the 0 0 analysis because the strength diminishes with long term swelling. Thus for cuts, long term or `drained' strengths must be used and this can be predicted in terms of effective stress using the Terzaghi±Coulomb equation: sd cH ' ÿ u tan 0H 1X16 provided the long term pore-water pressures are known which they normally are because the ground-water regime, initially disturbed by the construction activity, has regained a steady state.
10 Stress diagrams for the undrained test. (a) total stresses and pore pressures after removal from ground; (b) application of cell pressure, undrained; (c) application of axial load to failure, undrained from their capped sampling tubes and immediately encased in impermeable rubber sheaths. In the transition from the ground to the laboratory bench, the water content has remained unaltered while the external total stresses have been reduced to zero. Assuming the sampling disturbance has not signi®cantly distorted the specimens, the constant water content and therefore constant volume suggests that the state of effective stress has changed little, the pore pressure being reduced to give a suction of about ÿ50 kPa gauge pressure (Fig.
A Short Course on Foundation Engineering 2nd Edition by Bruce Menzies, N.E. Simons